Tag Archives: CSWAC

Defending Lesbian Moms in YYC

For decades in Calgary, if you were out as a lesbian and had children, you would likely have them taken away. Therefore the stakes were high for gay women: being a mom was decidedly a good reason for keeping the closet door barricaded. Unofficial estimates claim up to 50% of lesbians in the 1960s and 70s had children through previous heterosexual relationships or marriages. If they were outed, former husbands or even the state itself would intervene to ensure that these “unfit mothers” had their children removed.

Lois Szabo, the 2017 Grand Marshall of the Calgary Pride Parade, is a lesbian and also a mother. She was able to work out a child rearing arrangement with her husband privately. Sadly, Lois knew of other lesbians in the 1960s who lost access to their children completely and became utterly broken. One lesbian she knew was institutionalized. Another killed herself slowly through alcoholism.

In fact, it was not until November 21, 1975, when an openly lesbian mother was awarded custody of her child in Canada. In the groundbreaking decision of K. vs. K., Justice D. W. Rowe of the Alberta Provincial Court reasoned that a child’s likelihood of becoming gay would not increase solely by being raised by a homosexual parent – contrary to the view widely held in Canadian society. Regrettably, this decision did not set a new legal standard as throughout the 1980s lesbian mothers continued to lose custody battles specifically due to their sexual orientation.

However, the 1975 decision fired up feminist activists to begin challenging the legal bias against lesbians in Canadian courts. In 1978, the first Lesbian Mothers’ Defence Fund (LMDF) was started in Toronto, initially through a grant from a local church group and then sustained through private donations.

In Calgary, Lynn Fraser was working at the Calgary Status of Women Action Committee, a job she described as “very low paid but very exciting.” Lynn was an unapologetic feminist and activist. She recalled, “I had a big button I always wore that said, ‘Lesbian Mother,’ which sometimes caused me trouble – but I never backed down.”

Lynn had organized Feminist Town Halls in Calgary which included both actions and public speakers. In 1982, the first “Women Reclaim the Night March” was staged in Calgary in conjunction with a talk by Andrea Dworkin, a well-known American anti-pornography activist. Another speaker in the Town Hall series was Francie Wyland, the coordinator at Toronto’s LMDF.

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Francie Wyland, Dustin Smith, and his mother, Lynn Fraser. Photo: Garth Pritchard, Calgary Herald July 2, 1981.

There was a loose collective interested in starting a LMDF chapter in Calgary after Francie Wyland spoke to the lesbian community in 1981. Lynn met Marilyn Atkinson and her partner Lou at that first gathering featuring Francie. Marilyn also became a key organizer in the collective. As a mother herself, Marilyn volunteered to provide peer support to lesbian mothers and women during any potential custody struggles. The collective was based out of Gay Information Resources Calgary (GIRC) initially.

Lavender Marilyn

Lou with Marilyn Atkinson featured in Calgary’s Lesbian Publication The Lavender Times on the occasion of their 25th Anniversary.

The LMDF was a low-budget, grass roots organization. Pot-luck suppers and community dances were its primary source of funding. In 1982, two Calgary lesbians took pledges to cycle across the county to raise money for the LMDF. It took them four months, but they made it to St. John’s that summer after starting in Vancouver.

In 1983, the father of Lynn’s son, Dustin, started making noises about challenging her for custody of their child. That mobilized Lynn to call Francie in Toronto for LMDF advice. Beltline lawyer, Neva Ramsay, volunteered to do the incorporation papers for the local chapter and on April 21st, 1983, the Lesbian Mothers Defence Fund Society of Alberta was born. Dustin’s father backed off.

There was a lively social scene with Calgary’s LMDF, which moved out of GIRC into their own office at the Old Y. The potlucks and dances would even attract lesbians without children! A bonus to the socializing was that their children got to play with other kids who had lesbian moms, making their family structures seem much more commonplace.

The Lavender Times, November 1987

The LMDF offered information, support, referrals to lawyers, and financial help to lesbian mothers struggling to keep or win custody of their children. The advice in child custody cases included: going to court is the last resort; do not leave your children behind; beware of ex-husbands kidnapping your kids. The LMDF also advocated for social change in the judicial system, proclaiming that the straight court system failed lesbians.

Lynn recalls: “It was an exciting time to get your voice out there and be heard. There was so much misinformation and so much fear – it seemed like almost everybody was in the closet.”

As the LMDF developed, Marilyn was hired to organize lesbian conferences which she remembered proved quite popular: “Women came from everywhere to attend.” The first conference in 1985, was funded by the local lesbian community itself. When the conferences began to attract public funding, protests were heard.

Maureen Buruill, a lobbyist with REAL Women of Canada in January 1987 wrote an editorial in the Calgary Herald complaining about her own organization’s lack of funding:

“Women’s groups across Canada receive funding from the Secretary of State’s Women’s Program. One example was a grant to the Calgary Lesbian Mothers Defence Fund to set up a “lesbian-gay” workshop collective. This organization also received a grant to arrange a lesbian conference. Why is our tax money given to these groups and refused to a group seeking to preserve family values?”

Despite the social conservative yowling, the legal system evolved to have less bias against lesbian mothers. Consequently, the LMDF’s activities morphed into helping lesbians get pregnant – initially by connecting donors to mothers but also by running sperm! It was not until 1992 that artificial insemination in hospitals became legally available to single and unmarried women, including lesbians in Calgary. The LMDF then began fundraising for artificial insemination in doctor’s offices and stopped running sperm themselves. Several babies were born from the LMDF’s sustained efforts.

In 1992, the society changed its name to the Lesbian Mothers Support Society to better reflect its efforts and developed a notable online presence. It also was active in advocating Provincially for adoption rights for the partners of lesbian mothers. The society wound down its operations in 2002. However, in its 21 years of history, the LMDF made a huge difference: defending lesbian mothers and moving social justice forward in Calgary.

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The Of Colour Collective

Here is our latest history segment from this week’s broadcast of Calgary Rainbow Radio on CJSW:

Identity politics are very present in the public realm currently. The high profile Black Lives Matter protest at the 2016 Toronto Pride Festival has given the LGBTQ2 community pause to consider issues of privilege and racism within our own relationships and organizations.

Yet this is not the first time in Calgary that issues of racism within the gay community have been tackled. The Calgary Gay History Project recently interviewed a number of people who were involved with the groundbreaking Of Colour Collective, which existed in the 90s, and the work that they did addressing racism, sexism and homophobia and the intersections between them.

The origins of the group began in the feminist community. In the early 90s, a small group of women of colour connected to the Calgary Status of Women Action Committee (CSWAC) formed a collective they called WOCC – or the Women of Colour Collective. WOCC members wanted to challenge both hetero-normative assumptions in the women of colour community as well as white privilege in the local feminist community, which they felt was endemic in Calgary.

WOCC ended up having a great impact on CSWAC, and on its most high-profile project, the Herland Film Festival; eventually WOCC was invited to become a co-presenter of the festival. WOCC members who identified as queer increasingly became preoccupied with a perceived ethnic divide in the local queer community. WOCC co-founder Susanda Yee in February 1992 met some queer men of color who spoke of going through similar struggles, and they decided to form a new group.

There was some debate about whether it would be a social or an activist group and it tried to be both. When they were formulating a name for themselves different options were bandied about. Queers of Colour worked for some. Another cheekily suggested Off Colour.  But then Of Colour was proposed as a way to centralize and focus on that aspect of difference that united the group. When the noun was dropped (women, men, queers, etc.), the focus became on the adjective that united participants and defined their experience.

Through Gaylines, at the Old Y, they began meeting on the first Sunday of the month. In addition, Of Colour began socializing together a lot – going to gay bars as a group, and meeting up at art-house cinemas like the Plaza Theatre in Kensington for movies and post-film coffee discussions.

A formative moment for the collective occurred in the fall of 1992 when they travelled to Vancouver for a national human rights Conference called Outrights whose aim was to form a pan-Canadian queer organization. It was there that they met similar groups such as Khush: South Asian Gay Men [and Women] of Toronto. The Calgarians were both inspired and politicized by the experience and left with the sense that they were not alone. Queers of colour across Canada were striving for self-expression, to be more fully seen and to move beyond stereotypes.

Upon their return to Calgary, Of Colour divided into two overlapping groups – the working collective devoted to political action and the general collective who worked on social events.

In the Spring of 1993, the Collective was invited to speak at the Calgary Networking Club, an organization for gay and lesbian professionals. After their presentation, the audience started asking pointed and hostile questions such as: “Don’t you think YOU’RE being racist?” Or: “Why are you so angry at white people?” One person even told the speakers that: “immigrants need to go, because we were here first.” The Of Colour Collective representatives were shocked but the group doubled down on their commitment to educating and representing.

The larger queer community though was not universally hostile. Around the same time, the Calgary Lesbian And Gay Political Action Guild (CLAGPAG) invited Of Colour to be part of their diversity education campaign for service providers in Calgary. Of Colour accepted the invitation and the project, which created posters for agencies to display in their offices and lobbies, was deemed a success.

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On June 20, 1993, Susanda Yee and Paul Fernandez spoke at the Pride Rally at City Hall representing the Of Colour Collective.  They said that gay media such as Speak Sebastian (on CJSW) and CLUE! Magazine and the gay community at large ignore the issue of racism within the queer community.

That September, Clue Magazine did a cover story on diversity, which includes a guest editorial by Of Colour Collective member Kevin D’Souza. Controversy erupted over the feature article when Paul Fernandez strenuously objected to his published interview in a strongly worded letter to the editor and a Clue! Magazine investigation of the interview tapes confirmed that there were indeed misquotes and quotes taken out of context. Clue Magazine issued an apology.

Until 1995, the conflicts and controversies were largely contained within the queer community but in June of that year, the Of Colour Collective’s work blew up in a way that attracted national attention. Some members of the Of Colour Collective had experience producing film festivals; they thought to organize a Queer Film Fest titled: The Fire I’ve Become. The Collective booked the Glenbow Museum as their screening venue and there were no issues until their program came out. Some of the films being shown had racy titles and perceived X-rated content, which quickly attracted the ire of social conservatives.

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Pastor Ron Goodhew of the Jubilee Christian Centre contacted MPs, MLAs, and leaders of over 200 local churches to have their members protest the festival. He explained: “I don’t think the majority of people in Calgary would approve of their tax money paying to show restricted movies in a government-funded building.”

Ruksanna Makris, a spokesperson for the festival said in the Calgary Sun: “We contacted the police and nothing we are doing is against the Criminal Code.”

Yet many politicians of the day threw their disgusted 2 cents in: for example, Calgary Southeast Reform MP, Jan Brown, said she was appalled that the festival was funded in part by the Canada Council for the Arts.

The Glenbow Museum decidedly did not like the heat from the hundreds of calls protesting the venue rental and had reservations about letting the festival go forward, but after an intense meeting with the Of Colour Collective and their supporters, the Glenbow Executives allowed it.

Some members of the gay community were also hostile about the festival, worried about losing face and moving backward on human rights in Alberta. Michele Sharpe, Executive Director of Project Pride said in a Globe and Mail interview: “They have put the community back 20 years. They expect the entire gay community to support them and they are not going to get that. There are people, including myself, who are upset with some of the titles.”

Filmmaker Michelle Wong from the Of Colour Collective was given a crash course in media relations and was the official media spokesperson over the controversy. A couple of her main talking points were the fact that the festival crystallized gay issues and brought them to a larger public. She also countered that gays pay taxes in Canada and have every right to access public funding and public venues for their events.

The four-day festival turned out to be very popular. Its audience members had to cross through a picket of anti-festival demonstrators – but they filled the theatre every night.

In 1996, the festival presented its second iteration of the Fire I’ve Become at the Uptown Cinema.  Audience numbers disappointed the organizers and Michelle Wong said that the 1996 festival felt like a failure. That blow, combined with the fact that some key members of the Of Colour Collective had begun to leave Calgary, meant the group became less active. By 1998, the group was effectively dormant. They then formally wound their operations down handing over their accounts to the Gay and Lesbian Community Services Association (GLCSA), the organization known to us today as Calgary Outlink.

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